Diabetes mellitus DM
Diabetes mellitus DM


Etiology of type Type 1 Diabetes


1.Autoimmunity:


It is caused by the production of antibodies called islets cell Antibodies(ICA) which car the destruction of pancreatic Beta cells.

In more than 70% patient after. Circulating ICA are found.

2.Idiopathic cause:

Sometimes Type 1 Diabetes mellitus can occur due to unknown cause.

3.Genetic factors:

 it is more important in type 2 then in Type 1.

4. Other factors:


A.Environmental factors


B.viral infections 


such as mumps measle influence the viral pneumonia

In some instances there maybe is heriditary tendency for beta cell degeneration even without viral infection or autoimmune disorder.

B. Etiology of type 2 Diabetes mellitus:

 it occurs due to insulin and sensitivity and answers of insulin resistance and aging secondary life style an abnormal visceral obesity beta cell destruction there is selective defect and beta cell secretory mechanism that prevent it from responding normally to glucose the impaired beta cell response to glucose are further aggravated buy increase hyperglycemia and this defect improve with decreased hyperglycemia patient with type 2 Diabetes mellitus retain approximately 50% of Beta cells Mass.

Causes of type 2 Diabetes mellitus

These are

Mainly associated with hyperinsulinemia:

 the visceral obesity correlate with insulin resistance where is substance that seems to have less of an association decrease and number of insulin receptors

Family history: (genetic factor)

Genetically beta cell destructionphone
 type 2 has much stronger genetic relationship then type one
there are no circulating antibodies.
Other factors age more than 40 years hypertension high cholesterol level history of a normal fasting Glucose level excess growth hormone(acromegaly) pregnancy gestational diabetes ,
Polycystic ovary disease,
 lipodystrophy (acquired of genetic lipids accumulation)
autoantibodies to insulin receptor
mutation of insulin receptor
mutation of paroxism proliferator-activated receptor (pparg)
 mutation that causes genetic audacity for example melano receptor mutatioi

Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus:


The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is related to the hormone insulin which is secreted by the Beta cells of pancreas. this hormone is responsible for maintaining Glucose level in the blood. It allows the body cells to use glucose is a main energy source, however in diabetic person due to abnormal insulin metabolism the body cells and tissues do not make use of glucose from the blood, resulting in an elevated of glucose or hyperglycemia over a period of time, high glucose level in the bloodstream can lead to severe complication such as I disorder cardiovascular diseases renal diseases kidney damage nerve problems.


Type 1 Diabetes mellitus:

 in Type 1 Diabetes mellitus DM the pancreas cannot synthesise enough amount of insulin hormone as required by the body. Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes mellitus suggest that it is an autoimmune disease and which the body on immune system generate secretions of substances that attack the Beta cells of pancreas consequently the pancreas secrete little or no insulin.

Type 1 Diabetes mellitus DM is more common among children and young adults around 20 years since it is the common among young individual and insulin hormone is used for the treatment. Type 1 Diabetes is also referred to as insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus or Juvenile diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus:

In case of type 2 Diabetes mellitus there is normal production of insulin hormone but the body cells are resistant to insulin since the body cells and tissues are non responsive to insuline, glucose remains in the bloodstream. It is commonly manifested by middle age adult about 40 years is insulin is not necessary for the treatment of type 2 Diabetes mellitus it is known as non insulin Diabetes mellitus NIDDM or adult onset diabetes.

Gestational diabetes 

on the other hand occurs among pregnant women it is caused by due to the fluctuation of hormonal level during pregnancy usually the blood glucose level return to the normal after the baby is born.

General mechanism related to pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus DM:


Insulin is the principal hormone that regulate uptake of glucose from the blood and to the most cell therefore deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors play a central role and all form of diabetes.
Much of the carbohydrate in the food is converted within a few hours to the monosaccharide glucose the principal carbohydrate found in the blood and is used by the body as a fuel. Insulin is released into the blood by Beta cells found in the pancreas In response to rising level of blood glucose after eating. Insulin is used by about two third of the body cells to absorb glucose from the blood for the used as a fuel for conversion to other needed molecules or for storage and insulin is also principle control signal for conversion of glucose to glycogen for internal storage and level and muscle cells.

Lower Glucose level result both and reduce release of insulin from the Beta cells and the rivers conversion of glycogen to glucose occur when Glucose level Falls. This is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon which act and an opposite manner to insulin. Glucose discovered by the liver Re enter the bloodstream muscle cells lack the necessary export mechanism.

Higher insulin level increases some anabolic processes such as cell growth and duplication Protein synthesis and fat storage. Insulin is the principal signal and converting many of the bidirectional process of metabolism from a catabolic to and anabolic direction and vice versa. In particular a low insulin level is trigger for entering or Living ketosis the fat burning metabolic phase.

If the amount of insulin available is insufficient if the self respond poorly to the effect of insulin or if the answering itself is defective then glucose will not be absorbed properly buy those body cells that require it will be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistent high level of blood glucose poor Protein synthesis and other metabolic the arrangement searches acidosis.
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Haseenullah Shah

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6 comments so far,Add yours

  1. Diabetes is reversible. I am talking about the most common form of diabetes which is type 2.

    I have reversed it in so many cases myself and there are documented cases of thousands of people who have reversed diabetes with the help of experts.

    Glucose is the sugar which is used by every cell of the body to produce energy. This is carried by a hormone insulin to most of the cells. When sugar levels are high, the cells do not allow sugar inside and that is when we say Insulin has become ineffective. i.e. Insulin sensitivity has come down and the condition is known as Diabetes when excess sugar starts to circulate in the blood.

    Even the fat cells no longer store sugar. So any activity which burns energy will make your insulin sensitive and push glucose inside the cells reducing your sugar levels in the blood. When the intake of sugar is reduced, a similar result is observed.

    It takes a long time for the body to reverse diabetes and the body needs a lot of nutrients, as in a diabetic State the body is depleted of many nutrients.

    Diabetics are prone to infection and other chronic diseases like kidney failure, heart disease etc.

    Therefore it is important that you reverse the diabetes with a controlled and customized diet and not by yo yo dieting like reducing food intake. I definitely think that every parent needs to check out the site www.DiabetesReversalTactics.info if you’re serious about reversing your type 2 diabetes.

    Good luck!

    Nabila

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