Diabetes DM:


Diabetes DM

Diabetes DM


Definition of Diabetes:

Diabetes mellitus DM is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and abnormality is in carbohydrate fat and protein metabolism. It result from the defect and insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity for both.
Or
Diabetic is chronic incurable disease.
Or
Diabetes mellitus is heterogeneous group of disorder characterized by varing degree of insulin hyposecretion or insulin in sensitivity regardless of it is associated with hyperglycemia.

Let’s know how vegetables control diabetes

Epidemiology of Diabetes:

a) Type 1 insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus:

 occurs mainly in 10 to 14 years old but may occur in adult especially when hyperglycemia first appear and non obese or elderly.

The Global incidence is increasing with the annual increase of up to 3%.

An estimated 18.2 million American have diabetes mellitus of whom 1 million have Type 1 Diabetes mellitus.

b) type 2 non insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus:

More than 90% of all diabetes have type 2 diabetes.

Usually occur in person with of age more than 70 years.

Incident of type 2 increases with the agent obesity.

Types of Diabetes:

There are too many types of diabetes mellitus depend upon insulin secretion.
1.Type 1 diabetes mellitus
2.Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes mellitus in type 2 Diabetes mellitus represent two distinct diseases from epidemiological point of view, but clinical distinction can sometime be difficult varing degree of insulin secretary failure may be present in both form of diabetes.

For example:


Some patient with immune mediated diabetes Mein not at first required insulin where is many with type 2 diabetes will eventually do so.

1.Type 1 diabetes mellitus:( Insuline dependent Diabetes mellitus):

Type 1 Diabetes mellitus is also called insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus (IDDM) NS caused by lack of insulin secretion by Beta cells of pancreas. It is often called Juvenile diabetes. This usual onset of Type 1 Diabetes occur at about 14 years of age and for this reason it is often called Juvenile Diabetes mellitus.

2. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus: ( non insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus):

Type 2 diabetes is also called non insulin Diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and it and is caused by decree sensitivity of target tissue to metabolic effect of insulin. This reduced sensitivity to insulin aspart insulin resistance.

Type 2 diabetes occur after age 30 often between the ages of 50 and 60 years. Therefore, this syndrome is often referred to as adult onset Diabetes.

3.Other Specific Types of Diabetes mellitus DM:

Other specific types of diabetes known as secondary diabetes, describe diabetes that is associated with certain other condition and syndrome such as diabetes can occur with pancreatic disease are the removal of pancreatic tissue and with endocrine diseases such as acromegaly cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma.
Endocrine disorders they produce hyperglycemia do so by increasing the hepatic production of glucose and decreasing the cellular use of glucose.

Several diuretics such as thiazide diuretics and loop diuretics elevate blood glucose level. This diabetic increases potassium loss which thought to impair insulin release.

Other Drugs known to cause hyperglycemia are glucocorticoids levodopa ,oral contraceptives ,sympathomimetics ,phenothiazines ,,Phenytoin and
 total parenteral nutrition (hyperalimination)

4. Gestational diabetes:

Gestational Diabetes mellitus refer to any degree of glucose intolerance that is detected first during pregnancy. It occurs to various degree in 1% to 14% of all pregnancies, depending on the population and Diagnostic tests used. It most frequently affect women with family history of diabetes with glucosuria, with the history of stillbirth or continuous abortion, fetal abnormalities and previous pregnancy, our previous large or heavy for date baby and who are obese, of Advanced maternal age or have had five IMO pregnancies.

Women with average risk should be tested at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. Women with fbg of more than one 20 mg per DL are casual glucose of more than 200 mg per DL meet the threshold for diabetes, if confirmed on subsequent day and do not need to undergo oral glucose tolerance test.


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Haseenullah Shah

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