Saturday, February 9, 2019

Rabies - Symptoms and causes Diagnosis Treatment

Rabies - Symptoms and causes Image of rabies transmission rabies transmission Image of rabies human rabies human Image of furious rabies furious rabies Image of rabies symptoms in cats rabies symptoms in cats Image of rabies survivor rabies survivor Image of rabies prevention rabies prevention Image of rabies incubation period rabies incubation period Image of rabies in animals rabies in animals Rabies ,Rabies virus

Rabies:

Rabies
Rabies infected animal

Rabies Synonym: 

hydrophobia

Rabies Definition:

Viral infectious disease of CNS and is highly lethal viral infection caused by specific type of virus clinically characterized by a variable incubation period from 2 weeks to 16 weeks or longer and for a very short illness i.e. 2-3  days.

Rabies Etiology:


Rabies Causative agent:

lyssa virus type-1
Family: Ribo viradae
Sub-family: rhabdo viradae

Morphological characteristics of Rabies Virus:

It is single strand RNA genome
One end is round and other is flat
Length is 18nm, diameter is 75nm

Types of Rabies virus:

There are two types of rabies virus

  • Street virus 
  • Fixed virus


Rabies Street virus:


  • It is naturally occurring cause of rabies
  • Very lethal 
  • Nor used in vaccine product
  • Incubation period is long.


Rabies Fixed virus:


  • Artificially produced by tissue culture technique
  • It is not lethal 
  • Used in vaccine product
  • Incubation period is 4-6 days.


Reservoir / habitat of infection of Rabies virus:

In urban areas, rabies reservoir is rabid dog
In case of wild life, bats, jackal, fox etc.

 Rabies Source of infection:

All warm blooded animals are responsible for zoonotic infection
Saliva (highly infected with virus) is a source of infection of rabid animals.

Rabies Mode of transmission:



  • Bite of rabid animal

  • Licking of abraded/traumatic skin 

  • mucosal membrane by rapid animal


Incubation period Rabies virus:

 2-16 weeks or longer.

Factors effecting incubation period of Rabies virus:


Site of bite:

If site of bite is towards from CNS then incubation period is short and if away from CNS then incubation period is long.


Severity of bite:



  • Mild 
  • Moderate
  • Deep 
  • Superficial


Number of bites


  • Nature of rabid animal
  • First aid facility


Pathophysiology of Rabies:


  • Inoculation of virus to any other healthy animal
  • Locally multiply or replicated of that virus in connective/muscular tissues.
  • Attachment of virus to inorre ending of peripheral neuron
  • Start moving towards and away from CNS.
  • In CNS it will cause encerptialilits
  • Centrifugally moving towards various areas of the body i.e. skeletal muscles, myocardial muscles and different glands i.e. salivary glands attack on salivary gland is very crucial and a source of infection cause zoonotic infection of CNS and result in death.


Clinical features of Rabies:


  • Prodromal phase/stage
  • Headache, low grade fever and sore throat
  • Pain and tingling at the site of bite
  • Malaise and fatigue
  • Excitation stage:
  • Sensory system involvement
  • Motor system involvement
  • Autonomic system involvement
  • Mental involvement


 Sensory system involvement:


  • Hydrophobia
  • Aerophobia
  • Rigidity and spasticity of muscle 
  • Intolerance of light


Motor system involvement:


  • Rigidity and spasticity of muscles.
  • Autonomic system involvement:
  • Excessive salivation and lacrimation
  • Mental changes/fear of death
  • Depression and anxiety


Convulsion stage:


  • Convulsion/paralysis
  • Coma
  • Death


Diagnosis of Rabies:

  • Neigri body identificatio
  • History of rabid bite
  • Clinical features
  • Immune fluorescent technique.

Haseen Ullah Shah

Author & Editor

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